Use of west coast Waikato estuaries by Canada geese and black swans / prepared by: Brian Taylor Smith (Tonkin & Taylor Ltd); for: Waikato Regional Council.
Contributor(s): Waikato (N.Z.). Regional Council (2011- ) [issuing body.] | Tonkin & Taylor [contractor].Material type: BookSeries: Waikato Regional Council technical report: 2019/16.Publisher: Hamilton [New Zealand] : Waikato Regional Council, 2019.Description: 1 online resource : colour illustrations.Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceSubject(s): CANADA GOOSE | BRANTA CANADENSIS | BLACK SWAN | CYGNUS ATRATUS | ESTUARINE HEALTH | WAIKATO | RAGLAN | NEW ZEALAND | ESTUARIES | ESTUARINE ECOLOGYHoldings: ELECTRONIC Online resources: TR 2019/16 | NIWA document server | National Digital Heritage Archive Open Access
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|WELLINGTON ONLINE||ELECTRONIC||1||Not for loan||396496|
"18 June 2019."
Document #: 14530616.
Prepared by: Brian Taylor Smith (Tonkin & Taylor Ltd). For: Waikato Regional Council.
Peer reviewed by: Michael Townsend. Date: June 2019. Approved for release by: Tracey May. Date: October 2019.
Archived by the National Library of New Zealand in PDF.
Hypertext links contained in the archived instances of this title may not be functional.
Includes bibliographical references.
1 Introduction -- 1.1 Context -- 1.2 Overview of ecology -- 1.2.1 Canada geese -- 1.2.2 Black swans -- 1.3 Literature review objectives and outline -- 2 Literature review methodology -- 3 Findings -- 3.1 Population estimates -- 3.1.1 Geese -- 3.1.2 Swans -- 3.2 Habitat, diet and feeding -- 3.2.1 Geese -- 3.2.2 Swans -- 3.3 Ecological effects of swans and geese -- 3.3.1 Water quality -- 3.3.2 Changes to estuarine vegetation through feeding behaviour -- 3.3.3 Effects on indigenous birds -- 3.3.4 Dispersal of plants and invertebrates -- 3.4 Population management -- 3.4.1 Reducing reproductive success -- 3.4.2 Physical isolation of individuals from habitats/food sources -- 3.4.3 Lethal control of adults -- 3.4.4 Coordination -- 4 Conclusions and recommendations -- 5 References -- Appendix A: Key search terms -- Appendix B: Lakes and estuaries of the western Waikato surveyed annually for black swans and Canada geese by Fish & Game New Zealand
The exotic Canada goose and the native black swan are present in Waikato estuaries, and there are concerns that bird numbers are increasing. These waterfowl have various potential ecological effects, the most significant of which is damage to seagrass This report reviews available information on the use of estuaries on the west coast of the Waikato region by Canada geese and black swans, including the potential effects of these species on estuarine ecosystems.