Lake and reservoir restoration guidance manual : second edition / prepared by the North American Lake Management Society for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Assessment and Watershed Protection Division, Nonpoint Sources Branch.

Contributor(s): Olem, Harvey [editor] | Flock, Gretchen [editor] | United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water. Assessment and Watershed Protection Division. Nonpoint Sources Branch | North American Lake Management Society.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: Washington, D.C. : U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 1990Edition: 2nd edition.Description: x, 326 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.Report number: EPA 440/4-90-006Subject(s): WATER QUALITY | LAKES | RESERVOIRS | LAKE RESTORATION | WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT | UTILIZATION | ECOSYSTEMS | CATCHMENTS | HYDROLOGY | ORGANIC MATTER | LIMNOLOGY | ALGAE | WEEDS | MONITORING | EUTROPHICATION | MANAGEMENT | MACROPHYTESHoldings: GRETA POINT: 556.55:502.171 LAK Online resources: Click here to access online
Contents:
Preface -- Acknowledgements -- CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF MANUAL / Kent W. Thornton -- Introduction -- Audience -- Focus -- Lakes as Resources -- Natural Lake Conditions -- Desired Lake Uses -- What a Lake IS NOT -- Defining Desired Uses -- User Involvement -- Causes Versus Symptoms - a Major Reason for this Manual -- Manual Organization -- Definitions -- CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS / Bruce Kimmel -- Lake and Reservoir Ecosystems -- The Lake and its Watershed -- Water -- Dissolved Materials -- Special Background Section: The Hydrologic Cycle -- Special Background Section: Hydraulic Residence Time -- Special Background Section: Regional Differences in Lake Water Quality, Productivity, and Suitability -- Particulates -- Effects of Lake Depth -- Man-Made Lakes -- Lake Processes -- Lake Stratification and Mixing -- Mixing Processes -- Special Background Section: The Unique Properties of Water -- Water Movements -- Organic Matter Production and Consumption -- Photosynthesis and Respiration -- Phytoplankton Community Succession -- Sedimentation and Decomposition -- Food Web Structure, Energy Flow, and Nutrient Cycling -- Lake Aging and Cultural Eutrophication -- Special Background Section: Lake Basin Origin and Shape -- Ecology’s Place in Lake Protection, Restoration, and Management -- CHAPTER 3: PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION / Lowell Klessig, Richard Wedepohl, Douglas Knauer -- Chapter Objectives -- Common Lake Problems -- Algae -- Weeds -- Depth -- Acidity -- User Conflicts -- Problem Statement -- Problem Identification -- Problem Perception -- Causes of Lake Problems -- Selecting a Consultant -- Problem Diagnosis -- Investigate the Problem -- Preliminary Analyses -- Data Collection and Analyses -- Water Budget -- Surface Water and Lake Level -- Groundwater Measurements -- On-site Septic Systems -- Water Quality Monitoring -- Sampling Sites -- Physical Parameters -- Sedimentation Rate Estimates -- Temperature -- Transparency -- Chemical Parameters -- Dissolved Oxygen -- pH -- Alkalinity/Acid Neutralizing Capacity -- Nutrients -- Biological Parameters -- Algal Biomass -- Macrophyte Biomass and Locations -- Fish Survey -- Use of Trophic State Indices -- Problem Definition -- Putting the Pieces of the Puzzle Together -- Mirror Lake -- Appendix 3-A: Democratic Procedures to Obtain Consensus on Priority Uses for a Lake -- Nominal Group Process -- CHAPTER 4: PREDICTING LAKE WATER QUALITY / William W. Walker -- Uses of Models -- Eutrophication Model Framework -- Variability -- Loading Concept -- Water Budget -- Phosphorus Budget -- Lake Response Models -- Tracking Restoration Efforts -- Case Studies -- Lake Washington, Washington: “You Should Be So Lucky” -- Onondaga Lake, New York: “Far Out. 93 Percent Is Not Enough” -- Long Lake, Washington: “What’s This? Reservoir Restoration?” -- Shagawa Lake, Minnesota: “The Little Lake That Couldn’t” -- Kezar Lake, New Hampshire: “The Little Lake That Could (With a Little Help)”, or “Shagawa Revisited…” -- Lake Morey, Vermont: “Strange Mud…” -- Wahnbach Reservoir, Germany: “When All Else Fails…” -- Lake Lillinonah, Connecticut: “You Can’t Fool Mother Nature…” -- CHAPTER 5: MANAGING THE WATERSHED / Kent W. Thornton, Forrest E. Payne -- Introduction -- The Lake-Watershed Relationship -- Point Sources -- Wastewater Treatment -- Choosing the Scale of the System -- Municipal Systems -- Small-Scale Systems -- On-site Septic Systems -- Community Treatment Facilities -- Water Conservation to Reduce Lake Problems -- How to Assess Potential Sources -- Assessing Point and Domestic Wastewater Sources -- Nonpoint Sources -- Cultural Sources of Sediments, Organic Matter, and Nutrients -- What are Best Management Practices? -- Lake Restoration Begins in the Watershed -- Guidelines and Considerations -- Examples of Point and Nonpoint Improvement Projects -- Lake Washington: Point Source Diversion -- Annabessacook Lake, Cobbossee Lake, and Pleasant Pond: Point-Source Diversion/Nonpoint Source Waste Management/In-Lake Treatments -- East and West Twin Lakes: Septic Tank Diversion -- Summary
CHAPTER 6: LAKE AND RESERVOIR RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES / Dennis Cooke, Harvey Olem -- Introduction -- The Principles of Restoration -- Are Protection and Restoration Possible? -- Lake and Reservoir Restoration and Management Techniques -- Basic Assumptions -- Problem I: Nuisance Algae -- Biology of Algae -- Algae/Techniques with Long-Terms Effectiveness -- Phosphorus Precipitation and Inactivation -- Sediment Removal -- Dilution and Flushing -- Algae - Additional Procedures for Control -- Artificial Circulation -- Hypolimnetic Aeration -- Hypolimnetic Withdrawal -- Sediment Oxidation -- Food Web Manipulation -- Algicides -- Algae/Summary of Restoration and Management Techniques -- Problem II: Excessive Shallowness -- Problem III: Nuisance Weeds (Macrophytes) -- Biology of Macrophytes -- Macrophytes - Long-Term Control Techniques -- Sediment Removal and Sediment Tilling -- Water Level Drawdown -- Shading and Sediment Covers -- Biological Controls -- Macrophytes - Techniques with Shorter-Term Effectiveness -- Harvesting -- Herbicides -- Macrophytes - Summary of Restoration and Management Techniques -- Problem IV: Eutrophic Drinking Water Reservoirs -- Nature of the Problem -- Water Supply Reservoir Management -- Color -- Taste and Odor -- Loss of Storage Capacity -- Trihalomethane Production -- Problem V: Fish Management -- Nature of the Problem -- Diagnosis and Management -- Problem VI: Acidic Lakes -- Limestone Addition to Lake Surface -- Injection of Base Materials into Lake Sediment -- Mechanical Stream Doser -- Limestone Addition to Watershed -- Pumping of Alkaline Groundwater -- Acidic Lakes - Summary of Restoration and Management Techniques -- CHAPTER 7: HYPOTHETICAL CASE STUDY / Frank X. Browne -- Purpose of Case Study -- Lynn Lake - a Case Study -- Problem Definition -- Lake Restoration Advisory Committee -- Consultant Selection -- Detailed Work Plan -- Phase I Grant Application -- Lake and Watershed Study -- Study of Lake and Watershed Characteristics -- Study of Previous Uses and Recreational Characteristics -- Lake Monitoring -- Watershed Monitoring -- Data Analysis -- Lake Analysis -- Watershed Analysis -- Evaluation of Management Alternatives -- Evaluation Criteria -- Effectiveness -- Longevity -- Confidence -- Applicability -- Potential for Negative Impacts -- Capital Costs -- Cost Comparison: Alum Treatment Versus Dredging -- Watershed Management Alternatives -- Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrade -- Sedimentation Basins -- Agricultural Practices -- Construction Controls -- In-lake Management Alternatives -- Public Hearing -- Selection of Management Plan -- CHAPTER 8: IMPLEMENTING THE MANAGEMENT PLAN / William Funk -- Management Means Implementation -- Who Does the Work? -- Selecting Consultants or Contractors -- Institutional Permits, Fees, and Requirements -- Implementation Costs Money -- Plans and Specifications -- Funding Sources -- Federal Agencies -- State Agencies -- Local Sources -- Implementation Requires Contracts -- Implementation Takes Time -- Public Education is Critical for Sound Lake Management -- Postrestoration Monitoring is an Integral Part of Implementation -- CHAPTER 9: LAKE PROTECTION AND MAINTENANCE / Kent W. Thornton -- Introduction -- Lake Organizations -- Regulations in Lake and Watershed Protection and Management -- Controlled Development -- Permits and Ordinances -- Lake Monitoring -- The Lake Watch -- REFERENCES -- APPENDICES -- Appendix A: Metric Units -- Appendix B: Glossary -- Appendix C: Point Source Techniques -- Appendix D: Best Management Practices -- Appendix E: State/Provincial Lake Management Information -- Appendix F: Documents and Forms -- INDEX.
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556.55:502.171 LAK 1 Available B021437

"August 1990"--Cover.

Includes bibliographical references (pages 211-215) and index.

Preface -- Acknowledgements -- CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF MANUAL / Kent W. Thornton -- Introduction -- Audience -- Focus -- Lakes as Resources -- Natural Lake Conditions -- Desired Lake Uses -- What a Lake IS NOT -- Defining Desired Uses -- User Involvement -- Causes Versus Symptoms - a Major Reason for this Manual -- Manual Organization -- Definitions -- CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS / Bruce Kimmel -- Lake and Reservoir Ecosystems -- The Lake and its Watershed -- Water -- Dissolved Materials -- Special Background Section: The Hydrologic Cycle -- Special Background Section: Hydraulic Residence Time -- Special Background Section: Regional Differences in Lake Water Quality, Productivity, and Suitability -- Particulates -- Effects of Lake Depth -- Man-Made Lakes -- Lake Processes -- Lake Stratification and Mixing -- Mixing Processes -- Special Background Section: The Unique Properties of Water -- Water Movements -- Organic Matter Production and Consumption -- Photosynthesis and Respiration -- Phytoplankton Community Succession -- Sedimentation and Decomposition -- Food Web Structure, Energy Flow, and Nutrient Cycling -- Lake Aging and Cultural Eutrophication -- Special Background Section: Lake Basin Origin and Shape -- Ecology’s Place in Lake Protection, Restoration, and Management -- CHAPTER 3: PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION / Lowell Klessig, Richard Wedepohl, Douglas Knauer -- Chapter Objectives -- Common Lake Problems -- Algae -- Weeds -- Depth -- Acidity -- User Conflicts -- Problem Statement -- Problem Identification -- Problem Perception -- Causes of Lake Problems -- Selecting a Consultant -- Problem Diagnosis -- Investigate the Problem -- Preliminary Analyses -- Data Collection and Analyses -- Water Budget -- Surface Water and Lake Level -- Groundwater Measurements -- On-site Septic Systems -- Water Quality Monitoring -- Sampling Sites -- Physical Parameters -- Sedimentation Rate Estimates -- Temperature -- Transparency -- Chemical Parameters -- Dissolved Oxygen -- pH -- Alkalinity/Acid Neutralizing Capacity -- Nutrients -- Biological Parameters -- Algal Biomass -- Macrophyte Biomass and Locations -- Fish Survey -- Use of Trophic State Indices -- Problem Definition -- Putting the Pieces of the Puzzle Together -- Mirror Lake -- Appendix 3-A: Democratic Procedures to Obtain Consensus on Priority Uses for a Lake -- Nominal Group Process -- CHAPTER 4: PREDICTING LAKE WATER QUALITY / William W. Walker -- Uses of Models -- Eutrophication Model Framework -- Variability -- Loading Concept -- Water Budget -- Phosphorus Budget -- Lake Response Models -- Tracking Restoration Efforts -- Case Studies -- Lake Washington, Washington: “You Should Be So Lucky” -- Onondaga Lake, New York: “Far Out. 93 Percent Is Not Enough” -- Long Lake, Washington: “What’s This? Reservoir Restoration?” -- Shagawa Lake, Minnesota: “The Little Lake That Couldn’t” -- Kezar Lake, New Hampshire: “The Little Lake That Could (With a Little Help)”, or “Shagawa Revisited…” -- Lake Morey, Vermont: “Strange Mud…” -- Wahnbach Reservoir, Germany: “When All Else Fails…” -- Lake Lillinonah, Connecticut: “You Can’t Fool Mother Nature…” -- CHAPTER 5: MANAGING THE WATERSHED / Kent W. Thornton, Forrest E. Payne -- Introduction -- The Lake-Watershed Relationship -- Point Sources -- Wastewater Treatment -- Choosing the Scale of the System -- Municipal Systems -- Small-Scale Systems -- On-site Septic Systems -- Community Treatment Facilities -- Water Conservation to Reduce Lake Problems -- How to Assess Potential Sources -- Assessing Point and Domestic Wastewater Sources -- Nonpoint Sources -- Cultural Sources of Sediments, Organic Matter, and Nutrients -- What are Best Management Practices? -- Lake Restoration Begins in the Watershed -- Guidelines and Considerations -- Examples of Point and Nonpoint Improvement Projects -- Lake Washington: Point Source Diversion -- Annabessacook Lake, Cobbossee Lake, and Pleasant Pond: Point-Source Diversion/Nonpoint Source Waste Management/In-Lake Treatments -- East and West Twin Lakes: Septic Tank Diversion -- Summary

CHAPTER 6: LAKE AND RESERVOIR RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES / Dennis Cooke, Harvey Olem -- Introduction -- The Principles of Restoration -- Are Protection and Restoration Possible? -- Lake and Reservoir Restoration and Management Techniques -- Basic Assumptions -- Problem I: Nuisance Algae -- Biology of Algae -- Algae/Techniques with Long-Terms Effectiveness -- Phosphorus Precipitation and Inactivation -- Sediment Removal -- Dilution and Flushing -- Algae - Additional Procedures for Control -- Artificial Circulation -- Hypolimnetic Aeration -- Hypolimnetic Withdrawal -- Sediment Oxidation -- Food Web Manipulation -- Algicides -- Algae/Summary of Restoration and Management Techniques -- Problem II: Excessive Shallowness -- Problem III: Nuisance Weeds (Macrophytes) -- Biology of Macrophytes -- Macrophytes - Long-Term Control Techniques -- Sediment Removal and Sediment Tilling -- Water Level Drawdown -- Shading and Sediment Covers -- Biological Controls -- Macrophytes - Techniques with Shorter-Term Effectiveness -- Harvesting -- Herbicides -- Macrophytes - Summary of Restoration and Management Techniques -- Problem IV: Eutrophic Drinking Water Reservoirs -- Nature of the Problem -- Water Supply Reservoir Management -- Color -- Taste and Odor -- Loss of Storage Capacity -- Trihalomethane Production -- Problem V: Fish Management -- Nature of the Problem -- Diagnosis and Management -- Problem VI: Acidic Lakes -- Limestone Addition to Lake Surface -- Injection of Base Materials into Lake Sediment -- Mechanical Stream Doser -- Limestone Addition to Watershed -- Pumping of Alkaline Groundwater -- Acidic Lakes - Summary of Restoration and Management Techniques -- CHAPTER 7: HYPOTHETICAL CASE STUDY / Frank X. Browne -- Purpose of Case Study -- Lynn Lake - a Case Study -- Problem Definition -- Lake Restoration Advisory Committee -- Consultant Selection -- Detailed Work Plan -- Phase I Grant Application -- Lake and Watershed Study -- Study of Lake and Watershed Characteristics -- Study of Previous Uses and Recreational Characteristics -- Lake Monitoring -- Watershed Monitoring -- Data Analysis -- Lake Analysis -- Watershed Analysis -- Evaluation of Management Alternatives -- Evaluation Criteria -- Effectiveness -- Longevity -- Confidence -- Applicability -- Potential for Negative Impacts -- Capital Costs -- Cost Comparison: Alum Treatment Versus Dredging -- Watershed Management Alternatives -- Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrade -- Sedimentation Basins -- Agricultural Practices -- Construction Controls -- In-lake Management Alternatives -- Public Hearing -- Selection of Management Plan -- CHAPTER 8: IMPLEMENTING THE MANAGEMENT PLAN / William Funk -- Management Means Implementation -- Who Does the Work? -- Selecting Consultants or Contractors -- Institutional Permits, Fees, and Requirements -- Implementation Costs Money -- Plans and Specifications -- Funding Sources -- Federal Agencies -- State Agencies -- Local Sources -- Implementation Requires Contracts -- Implementation Takes Time -- Public Education is Critical for Sound Lake Management -- Postrestoration Monitoring is an Integral Part of Implementation -- CHAPTER 9: LAKE PROTECTION AND MAINTENANCE / Kent W. Thornton -- Introduction -- Lake Organizations -- Regulations in Lake and Watershed Protection and Management -- Controlled Development -- Permits and Ordinances -- Lake Monitoring -- The Lake Watch -- REFERENCES -- APPENDICES -- Appendix A: Metric Units -- Appendix B: Glossary -- Appendix C: Point Source Techniques -- Appendix D: Best Management Practices -- Appendix E: State/Provincial Lake Management Information -- Appendix F: Documents and Forms -- INDEX.

GRETA POINT: 556.55:502.171 LAK

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